Let’s not overemphasise the fingertip knowledge

Knowledge is back on Britain’s education agenda. Whether it is debating knowledge vs. skills or traditionalists vs. progressives. Talk about knowledge is all over twitter and blogs. I must admit a bias in favouring the reawakening of knowledge. But I do think that we need to make sure we are emphasising the knowledge which is most powerful.

This is a particularly prevalent concern for a history teacher. As I fear that in teaching substantive historical knowledge we may just come to teach a list of key ‘facts’ and dates. Facts and dates have a place in history education. This knowledge is what Christine Counsell has referred to as ‘fingertip knowledge’. That is to say this is the knowledge which students need in their minds, or at their fingertips, during historical enquiries. Without knowledge of historical events students would be incapable of constructing answers to historical questions.

For example, let’s look at that classic Year 7 History questions ‘Why did William win the Battle of Hastings?’ How possibly could students answer this questions without knowledge of events. Moreover, this enquiry would need to take place over several lessons, requiring students to retain that knowledge over several lessons. Therefore, knowledge needs to be taught and students need to retain this knowledge during their enquiry.

However, the retention of this knowledge is not the ultimate objective of the history classroom. Instead what we must value is what Counsell calls residual knowledge. This is the rich historical residue that is left behind after students have moved to another enquiry or area of study. This is what can help to develop a sense of period (perhaps I will explain the importance of this in another post) or develop understanding of substantive concepts.

If my students retain knowledge of key dates, people and events then great. If I can give them a quiz and they get questions right in Year 10, about topics they studied in Year 7, then brilliant. I use retrieval tasks and timelines from memory. But we have to be careful that we do not spend too much time focusing on dates, people and events. Instead our focus on knowledge needs to be focused on developing students’ conceptual knowledge.

For a long time second-order concepts have been the focus of history teachers pedagogy. This focus is absolutely correct, as second-order concepts provide the organising principles for history teachers. When we answer questions in history, then we focus on cause and consequence, change and continuity, interpretation and significance. It gives shape to students’ learning. This is vital. But we also need to think about substantive historical concepts.

Concepts such as democracy, kingship, empire or nation are what have been called substantive concepts. These have a changing nature based on their historical contexts. For example, ancient Athenian democracy is very different to modern liberal democracy. Yet, they are both democracies. That is a challenging idea for young history students. It takes a huge amount of knowledge about the past to develop an understanding of these concepts. Students need to have studied these concepts through different historical examples.

Furthermore, teachers need to help students manage the cognitive dissonance which is needed to grasp the at times conflicting nature of these concepts. For example, trying to understand the role of slavery in Athens and its role in developing democracy. Substantive concepts are complex and at times contradictory. History is at times messy and that is the challenge. As a result, some of the powerful discoverieswhich have been made about how students learn, need to be utilised.

Therefore, it is using residual knowledge to develop students’ knowledge of substantive concepts which should be teachers’ long-term focus. We need to use retrieval and interleaving to achieve this (another post needed to go into that too). It is through focusing on students’ mastery of these concepts that we can best prepare them for further historical study. By grasping the complexity of these concepts students’ will have the language and contextual understanding to grasp future study.

Focusing on substantive concepts requires students to engage with fingertip knowledge. But when we talk about making knowledge important in the history classroom we need to be careful. We have to be careful not to focus on pub quiz knowledge, which so many have criticised those who value knowledge for wanting. That is now what I think most people want from a knowledge curriculum. A knowledge rich history curriculum should therefore be focused on develop students’ conceptual understanding and sense of period.

Diagnostic Data: the importance of the Little Data

A few observations to begin

Any teacher today knows that most schools are data mad! End of year targets, Half termly reports, tracking of assessments and the list goes on, and on and on ……

As a young teacher this is all I’ve ever know, but it doesn’t stop me being completely and utterly aware of how unbelievably unnecessary it is.

I remember being a student teacher and constantly being told to level pieces of work in the name of ‘progress over time’. In fact on one occasion, I sent students away over half term to construct their own castles (back in the day when I was such a ‘fun teacher’). When they returned I was told by the Assistant Headteacher that I should level these. Need I say more!

Now in a post-level world some schools are leading the way in creating more meaningful assessment models. However, most schools still seem stuck in the same misguided mindset.

As Tom Sherrington has outlined ‘we continually attempt to make something complicated, very simple and we turn real meaning into a code.’ Why? Because this misguided mindset comes down to one fundamentally wrong assumption…..assessment is for measuring.

Those headline figures are always so attractive. BEST RESULTS EVER! 100% A*-C. This could not be more wrong. As the old teaching proverb goes ‘you don’t fatten a pig by weighing it’ and you don’t help students learn by measuring their learning and reporting it.

However, that is not to say we should not be creating data. We should! But we need effective DIAGNOSTIC data, which is about the students in front of us, and involves next steps to support their learning.

Creating Diagnostic Data

When I had my first observation as a PGCE student my feedback was ‘how do you know what every student in the class has learnt?’ At the time I didn’t understand what this meant. Later I dismissed this as unattainable. But now I know that at the end of every lesson I need to know if every student has learnt what they should have.

How have I been doing this? Well first a moment of honesty….I’m working on it. I don’t have some magic formula but I have borrowed some ideas from other bloggers which have really helped me to (as Hattie terms it) make the learning visible.

First, low stakes testing and lots of it. This has really improved the quality of students’ knowledge. It makes clear to students as we move from one topic to the next that they are not leaving prior knowledge behind. It also helps to reduce the forgetting curve. But most interestingly for the purpose of this blog it creates lots of interesting data. With this I can instantly see what topics students struggle with and identify students who are having problems with knowledge retention. I can therefore DIAGNOSE issues students have with lesson content.

The issue then becomes about the crucial next steps. I rely on three (completely unrevolutionary) approaches here. Going over the correct answers, reteaching content or setting homework. Pretty simple but effective, and takes up very little of my time and energy.

My second idea is marking every book every lesson. I’ve seen a lot of posts about this so I won’t bore you with more on this but it works. The first time I read about this I just thought how am I possible going to have the time for that. But after trying it, I now realise that it can take minutes to mark exit tickets from every student and indicate whether they have achieved the learning intentions of the lesson.

The next lesson students come into the classroom and have a task to begin which is differentiated based on their success in relation to the learning intentions. This takes very little time but it is far more powerful than me giving detailed comments every so often.

Concluding remarks

It’s all well and good creating this data and giving students next steps but to make this truly diagnostic, teachers need to ask question.

I keep a record of all this data in my mark book. This allows me to identify patterns and search for solutions. Little Johnny isn’t meeting the learning intentions every single lesson. Why is this? What can I do about it?

This data also allows teachers to have discussions with others. Just this week I had a meeting about a student. Armed with all this data I was able to give very detailed information about this student. Could the same be said if I had a mark book with only levels and grades?

My point is that it is completely possible to know if every student has met the learning intentions of lessons. By recording this and creating data we can find patterns (about students and classes) and we can have meaningful discussions with staff and students about their learning.

Therefore data can be hugely valuable. But it’s not the big data, which measures the students, that matters. It’s the little data that matters, as teachers on the ground can utilise it to help students learn.

Reflections on Assessment in History 

With a little bit of extra time this bank holiday weekend, in the midst of exam chaos, I have had the chance to do a little reading of Teaching History.

I have been an avid reader of Teaching History since being force fed a healthy diet of articles during my PGCE. From that an area of reading which has been my greatest interest has been articles around assessment and specifically how we can replace National Curriculum levels.

It is well documented that NC levels are an unfit and poorly suited model of assessment for students’ historical understanding. In a 2014 article Alex Ford draws on some excellent points made in earlier work and proposes his own model. This is an exceptional piece of work and is definitely worth a read and some reflection. Therefore here I want to draw out the reflection I have had reading this article and what I want to take from it.

What are we assessing for? 

This is ultimately the million dollar question and Ford draws out some key points exceptionally well, proposing three key objectives for assessment:

  1. Assessing attainment
  2. Describing progress
  3. Providing meaningful models for progression

With these three key objectives Ford makes clear that one assessment model, like NC levels, is not enough to achieve these goals. This fits in very well with an idea addressed in a recent course I attended with an OFSTED inspector. We took a look at educational terms like ‘progress’ and ‘attainment’ and took some time to compare and contrast them. What became clear from this activity was that these are very different terms but have become conflated.

Perhaps the biggest point I will be taking from this article then is Ford’s point that we should be using separate grading styles for attainment and progress. Therefore it is very clear to students that different aspects of their learning is being addressed.

Where is the history? 

As a PGCE student we used to hear horror stories about ‘Scary Mary’ the Geography tutor, whose catch phrase ‘where is the geography?’ haunted the Geographers nightmares. However, as I have reflected on that idea it becomes apparent that the question ‘where is the history?’ is a question that History teachers should be asking more.

For example, it can be very easy in history to spend a lesson studying Nazi propaganda, with a focus on ‘skills’, and miss the opportunity to explore some deep contextual knowledge.

As this threat of missing the historical knowledge exists for teachers, it can also exists for students. However, when we look at the old NC levels how much emphasis is given to substantive knowledge?

Therefore Ford emphasises that assessment should link to conceptual mastery and historical knowledge. For me I envisage that this would involve having an individualised mark scheme for every assessment (as is already good practice). With this it can be made clear what conceptual mastery we expect to see, but also what knowledge we expect students to cover. Therefore we can avoid some overly formulaic approach to writing history.

Aiming for a ‘gold standard’

This is a term that played the central role in my final research project into assessment during my PGCE and it is a key term used by Ford here.

In looking for a gold standard we want to see ‘what is the best of history?’ What is it that we want the best historians to do? Ford lays out some of key aspects of a gold standard in history. The idea of a gold standard for history is definitely something that every history department should be focusing on and discussing regularly. As a starting point maybe Ford’s article would be a great way to instigate some discussion.

For me I believe that the gold standard should be used not just for our assessment planning but out curriculum planning, where we can map out a plan of how we can aid student progress to achieve this standard.

The place of informal assessment

Aside from formal assessment, something which has regularly come up on writing about assessment has been low stakes informal assessment. The purpose of this is to ensure pupils factual and chronological knowledge. Making sure that they have a strong understanding as they engage with complex conceptual tasks.

This could take the form of quizzes, timelines, mini-essays, news reports, multiple choice questions and so on. This is something which I have done some of this year and certainly something I plan to do more of next year. I think that this can also fit well into ideas around cognitive science and working memory as we can ensure that information is being used regularly to shift it into students’ long-term memory.

Thus, informal feedback can be conducted at regular intervals, to sure up retention of knowledge, and the results can be recorded in exercise books.

What assessment should look like? 

Three key pillars surround Ford’s ideas about what assessment should look like.

  1. Formative feedback

This is the work which Ford says students should be given time to respond to in lessons. For this I think that there is the possibility to bring in some ideas about DIRTy feedback.

  1. Measures of attainment

As I explained earlier Ford splits up measures of attainment and progress. The outcome for measures of attainment can therefore come from the results of informal assessment and the grades for specific assessment task.

Ford also uses his own grading system here. In the world of exam factories however it is hard for many history teachers to move away from NC levels. Therefore this is where a traditional numbered system can still find a place.

  1. Measures of progress

This is a really interesting approach which I think is often being overlooked in schools, which is true progress. Progress is the buzzword in education but do we really mean progress? Ultimately just writing down a grade in a report every half term doesn’t constitute looking at students’ progress.

Therefore Ford creates descriptors for students’ progress and an evidence list for this.

Another interesting way of addressing progress is that Ford puts a +,= or – next to students work based on whether they are making progress.

Engaging parents with our idea of good history

For me this could be the key element to creating good history, involving parents in our thinking. Parents are not in our classrooms, are not undertaking the learning their students are, but they are often called on to help with homework. So what I envision is sharing our ideas of good history with parents.

This really could be a far simpler process than it may first seem. What I envision doing (and am sure many out there already are) is putting together a parent guide book for history. This could involve curriculum maps, assessment question and general guidance on what it is we will cover. It could also involve including some historical content for parents to help their children with their understanding. As well as places to find other resources.

However, what could be of really significant here is sharing with parents our gold standard and what progress in history looks like. Part of this could be sharing the evidence sheet Ford proposes with parents. With this we can therefore begin to share our ideas with parents.

Final reflections 

Ford is quick to emphasise that this is all still a working process and to really get an insight his article is worth reading.

However, although teaching history is an amazing publication it isn’t a place to go for a quick idea. Instead it is a way of inspiring some reflection. Therefore what I have tried to do here is give you an insight into some of my reflections from my reading.

It would be great to get some insight from other teachers on what they are doing with assessment so please leave a comment.

Try Google Classroom: A new tool for formative feedback

In education we love a fad! I’m the same! We can’t wait to try out the ‘next big thing’ and rush off and tell other teachers about it. This is perhaps even truer in the use of technology. Just take a look at the electronic white board that’s sitting in just about every classroom in the country being used as a projector.

With this in mind I’m determined to try and take a sceptical perspective on new ideas is education. However, here I want to really emphasise the potential of Google Classroom as a new tool in education that everyone should at least have a go at.

If you don’t know what Google Classroom is…

At its most basic level Google Classroom is a private webpage for your class, where you can share information and resources with your students. Sharing announcements, worksheets and videos. It is specifically designed for teachers and is very simple to use. A great tutorial can be found HERE.

However, if you want to get the full out of Google Classroom then it can be a fantastic environment for collaborative learning.

Formative Feedback?

What I really want to take a look at is how Google Classroom can enhance formative feedback.

Since the work of Black and Wiliam on Assessment for Learning, AfL has become the big buzz word in education. This has materialised in various ways. The latest incarnation of this seems to be the OFSTED push on marking.

I think that this emphasis on marking is a move in the right direction. However, realistically the traditional model of getting students to complete some work, providing feedback and then hoping they adopt that feedback  in their next piece of work, just isn’t up to scratch.

Even if DIRTy (Dedicated Improvement and Reflection Time) feedback is given, at the end of the day this isn’t ideal as, it is coming after the students have completed their work.

So how does Google Classroom offer a solution?

What Google Classroom allows you to do is provide on-going feedback. Through creating a document which you share with students in your classroom individually you can provide feedback while they are completing this assignment. The benefit of this is that the feedback I am given is being immediately used by the students and I can see if this feedback is being implemented.

Recently I have done this with a Year 12 group. After setting up a Google Doc shared through Google Classroom students were set an exam question. As they completed this task I was able to enter their work and write comments in the same way comments can be written on word documents.

Through doing this I was able to give students personalised feedback on the content and structure of their essays. This led to their best essays by far this year and some great feedback from my students.

What else can Google Classroom do?

Rather than giving a comprehensive account of what Google Classroom can do I wanted to give you an insight into how I’ve been using it. Nonetheless, it can do a lot more.

For starters you’ve got the discussion board. There is obviously lots of ways this can be used. For my fellow History teachers the way I’m interested in using it is as a discussion board for readings students have completed to get them discuss their opinions.

Another interesting feature is that documents can be shared collaboratively. With this, students can all work on a document together. Again there are lots of ways to use this. One possible option here is to create a Wiki were students can work collaboratively to produce a summery on a topic.

A word of warning!

None of this has an impact immediately. It takes some time for this practice to become embedded so don’t give up. Set up your own Google Classroom and try out some different ideas.

Let me know what you come up with!

Further Reading:






Making the Holocaust personal [part 1] – Aims and Objectives

As I began to teach Hitler’s rise to power and the Second World War with my Year 9 classes, my student’s interest seemed to immediately be on the Holocaust. As I now embark on teaching the Holocaust to my students I wish to ensure that I am able to do justice to such profound events. Therefore over a series of posts I will record here the process I am undertaking in planning a delivering these lessons.

What are we teaching the Holocaust for?

In teaching, the one word which I believe is more important than any other is ‘why’. When we select a topic we must ask ‘why are we teaching this topic?’ When we chose the content to teach as part of that topic we must ask ‘why are we teaching this content?’ When we select an activity to deliver this content we must ask ‘why are we teaching with this activity?’

In teaching the Holocaust these questions are perhaps even more important. As such an emotive topic, carrying so many connotation it is important that we are motivated to teach the Holocaust for the right reasons.

Interestingly in the work done by the IOE into the current teaching of the Holocaust it was discovered that the aim of ‘learning the lessons of the Holocaust’ was more popular among History teachers than aims which focus on understanding the Holocaust as an historical event.

For me the focus on learning lessons from the Holocaust seems an abstract idea. Of course it is possible for us to draw parallels with the past and contemporary issue but if this is our only objective then we can be doing the study of history a disservice.

Therefore what I aim to do is to understand the Holocaust as an historical event. Giving my students an insight into the development of an historical situation and its impact. In the case of teaching the Holocaust I therefore aim to give my students an insight into how and why the Holocaust developed and what impact this had on the lives of Jews.

How do I hope to achieve these aims?

As well as thinking carefully about our motives in teaching topics I strongly believe in the use of second-order concepts. The use of second-order concepts has become widespread and I hope that an explanation for their need is not required here. What I do wish to outline here is my choice of change and continuity as the second-order concept through which I will organise students thinking.

Change and continuity goes to the heart of what I want to achieve in my teaching of the Holocaust. Through a focus on changes and continuities to Jewish life over the Holocaust I hope that my students will be able to gain an insight into the changing nature of the Holocaust and the diversity of experiences.

Keeping diversity in mind I feel it is essential to emphasise that the Holocaust was a personal event, experienced by individuals. An event which stands out powerfully in my own educational experiences was a talk by a Holocaust survivor. From this very personal account I became hugely engaged and was able to see how his experiences developed and impacted his life. Thus, I intend to use personal accounts from Holocaust survivors to investigate how individuals’ lives were affected. A particularly useful resource for gathering personal accounts, which I will be using in designing these lessons, is a book edited by Lyn Smith, Forgotten Voices of the Holocaust.

However, I also want to provide students with a clear narrative to build their understanding around. For this I will be using Schindler’s List. As history teachers I feel we have become very good at using films for teaching about the past. But there is often a danger that films can become a secondary source like a text book which students learn from without any interpretation. Instead what I want to do here is to study the film critically through comparison with primary accounts.

In order to ensure that this narrative and these personal accounts are given the relevance they deserve I also intend to place these events in their wider historical context. Looking specifically at the events of the war as it develops and different cases to understand what motivated individual’s actions, such as Jewish resistance and the case of Battalion 101.

Next steps…

Here I hope that I have given you an insight into my rational for the teaching of the Holocaust. My next step is to plan a series of lessons to achieve the aims I have set out here, which will form the basis for a coming post. I look forward to hearing any thoughts and insights that anyone can offer.